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Kaity O'Reilly

Kaity O'Reilly

Bio

Katy O'Reilly is a second year graduate student in the Arts Administration and Policy department at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Her administrative practice focuses on examining how the arts can be used as a tool for cultural and community engagement through programming and exhibitions, specifically in regards to divested communities. As an extension of this, her thesis research explores the responsibility of white arts administrators in working towards racially equitable art organizations.


The Case for the Urban Ecomuseum: Empowering Divested Neighborhoods through Community-focused Museums

Written by Kaity O’Reilly
Post-Critical Museology
Professor Magdalena Moskalewicz
May 8th, 2018


There has been a movement towards a more focused effort on community engagement and consciousness in the museum world recently. In order to play a more influential role on the community it serves, museums must adopt systems in which the purpose is to center around the needs of said community, as opposed to placing the museum at the center of the equation with the community adapting to it. This is especially the case when it comes to museums located in urban areas, where the museum often occupies a space of privilege and access that many in its community can’t hold as easily. The ecomuseum structure focuses on using the museum as a platform to prioritize access to citizenship and resources for its communities,and, as such, is the most beneficial to community engagement because it is focused on directly supporting the community it is located in. How the ecomuseum model is utilized to best benefit the underserved minority populations in urban communities will be specifically examined through two case studies, the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum. Though neither museum identifies as an ecomuseum, this study will make the case that both embody principles and methodologies that echo those of this model, therefore providing evidence that the ecomuseum, and not the traditional museum structure, is the best viable model for community empowerment.

            Originating from the French word “écomusée,” the term “ecomuseum” is the English translation, with the prefix “eco” suggesting a reference or connection to nature or ecology.[1] When Georges Henri Rivière, an influential French museologist, defined the concept in 1973, it was meant to focus more on the environment and ecology around the museum. It wasn’t until later in 1978 that the definition was adapted to include the local community in its role, after this model was experimented with in regional nature parks. Ultimately, in 1980, Rivière’s final version is the one that best articulates the possibilities of the ecomuseum: [2]

It is a mirror in which the local population views itself to discover its own image, in which it seeks an explanation of the territory to which it is attached and of the populations which have preceded it, seen either as circumscribed in time or in terms of the continuity of generations. It is a mirror that the local population holds up to its visitors so that it may be better understood and so that its industry, customs, and identity may command respect. … It also offers a vista of the future, while having no pretensions to decision-making, its function being rather to inform and critically analyse. (Rivière, 1985) [3]

While this definition may seem rather broad, it focuses much of its worth around the “population,” emphasizing the possibility of the ecomuseum to be beneficial beyond just nature-focused surroundings.[4] Indeed, Rivière says himself, “[The ecomuseum’s] diversity is limitless, so greatly do its elements vary from one specimen to another.”[5]

In 1972, the International Council of Museums (ICOM) official claimed, for the first time, that “a museum should be integrated with the society around it.”[6] Then, in 1974, the definition ICOM has for a museum was revised to state that “the museum should be an institution in the service of society and its development.”[7] In addition, ICOM adopted an official definition for the “ecomuseum,” stating:

The ecomuseum is an institution which manages, studies and exploits - by scientific, education and generally speaking, cultural means - the entire heritage of a given community, including the whole natural environment and cultural milieu. Thus the ecomuseum is a vehicle for public participation in community planning and development. To this end, the ecomuseum uses all means and methods at its disposal in order to allow the public to comprehend, criticise, and master - in a liberal and responsible manner - the problems which it faces. Essentially the ecomuseum uses the language of the artifact, the reality of everyday life and concrete situations in order to achieve desired changes. [8]

Not only does this shows the impact the ideology had on a broad scope, as it was officially brought into the broader conversation of museology practices and led to the adoption of new policies at the international level, but it further emphasizes the potential and possibilities of the ecomuseum structure through this definition. It is off of this definition that this study will build the argument that the ecomuseum model is more beneficial for community engagement than that of the traditional museum. Once this is established, it will provide the foundation for exploring how urban community museums already embody principles of the ecomuseum.

The ecomuseum as a museum structure has some essential differences from the traditional model of the museum that will be beneficial to achieving the goal of greater community interaction by creating more meaningful and purposeful connections between the museum and its surrounding community. Though there are many definitions of what can encompass a community, here it is largely focused on those sharing a geographic location, which may, in turn lead the people living there to share further commonalities, such as local politics and a collective culture and remembrance.[9] Museums are fundamentally educational institutions, as they have the ability and power to form and disseminate collective values and social norms with an air of importance and authority. They are the first spaces in which essential cultural standards are defined, making their standing and purpose inherently political, as they have the innate authority to what may be adopted as popular knowledge and fact.[10] Before moving further into this concept, it is essential to note that the terms “political” and “politics” will be used to articulate a difference between two definitions, that often are used interchangeably, but ultimately represent varying meanings. “Politics” will be used in reference to institutional or governmental issues or policy, whereas “political” will be used more in relation to a consideration of ethics pertaining to issues or policy.[11] This is not to say that there are not examples in which ethical political stances will not also be in relationship to a certain side of a governmental politics issue, as these are often very much intertwined. However, it is important to differentiate these two terms as it is crucial to consider the expansive reach of political possibility without the hindrance of the politics of representative democracy.[12] If these terms are not separated from each other at times, then the independent and sweeping possibilities within the concept of the “political” will only be able to be imagined as far as what is viable within the realm of existing institutional norms.[13] This distinction is important to consider here as many ecomuseums deal largely with politics relating to their surrounding communities, often taking a political side to the issue.

As is the reality of museums, their political and social influence must be considered, especially when in relationship to efforts towards community engagement. As an institution with such authority, it is crucial that the museum consciously consider its role in the distributing of information and access, and in what ways this process could be done to best benefit the communities it serves. The ecomuseum model is focused around these very realities and offers potential solutions to these complex considerations. There are some essential differences between the ecomuseum model and the traditional museum, the largest being in their physical presence and their collective ideologies. Instead of defining itself off of its building, the ecomuseum is defined by the physical location and/or community it serves. The ecomuseum is organized around the community’s relationship with its culture and the geographic surroundings. It is often the case that traditional museums have not worked well as community museums, mostly because their social and cultural characteristics are not suitable to the considerations of the audience when it comes to community engagement.[14] It is important to differentiate that the argument here is not for traditional museums to alter their existence or models of working to exactly match those of the ecomuseum. Indeed, those who believe in the ecomuseum model argue that, “it is better to change the museum into an institution that serves the needs of the public, rather than try to change public perceptions of what museums are about.” [15]

Hundreds of ecomuseums are currently in existence around the world, mostly centered in Europe and Asia.[16] However, ecomuseums in the United States are not as popular of an institution model as abroad. In fact, there is only one institution that identifies itself under this model within the US: the Him Dak Ecomuseum in Arizona.[17] Many museums in the United States that are focused on community efforts are identified as “community museums” which usually encompass, “minority ethnic sections of large cities, historical societies in small towns and tribal organisations on Indian reservations.”[18] Community museums have one essential difference from ecomuseums in that they tend to have four principle features in the operation of their museum: “leadership by paid staff, curatorial input from trained professionals, a community-based Board of Directors, and a diverse funding base.”[19 ]Community museums are still viable and valuable because they, like ecomuseums, usually represent identity groups and benefit their community through ways that larger, traditional museums are unable to do.[20] This conclusion was reached through examination and comparison of community museum practices and those of ecomuseums. However, this study will argue that in order to be most successful and beneficial to their communities, community museums should fully embody the ideology and methodology of the ecomuseum in directly collaborating with their communities.

In order to best understand the framework in which this study will consider how the ecomuseum model is already partially embodied by urban community museums, a specific subset of the ecomuseum must be explained more thoroughly. In 1988, René Rivard compared the definitions of traditional museums focused around ecology (natural history museums, field centers, national parks, etc) and that of the ecomuseum. He found that the traditional museum model was more focused around four elements: the building, collections, experts, and the public. The ecomuseum, in comparison, fixated upon territory, heritage, memory, and population.From these distinctions, he identified four different categories of ecomuseums: the discover ecomuseum, the development ecomuseum, the specialist ecomuseum, and the combat ecomuseum. This study will focus on the combat ecomuseum model, as it focused around ecomuseums located in urban areas that are committed to confronting social issues within their communities.[21] This model has not been realized to its full potential in the past, but it is important to note that there is a increasing interest in the possibility of future implementation as it relates to present socio-cultural landscape.[22] It is the belief of the author that this model is one that could be especially pertinent in relation to urban settings within various cities with the United States. The combat ecomuseum concept is one to consider further in regard to the function of urban neighborhood-focused museums, as opposed to just as community museums. There are distinct differences from this model in the case studies examined, in that each makes it a deliberate part of their mission and values to directly support and impact policy in the community they serve, as opposed to just reflecting the community’s identity back upon themselves. Within this vein, this study will examine how these urban community museums already embody the methods of the ecomuseum model, as they already have initiatives that encompass this ideology.

This paper will examine three main factors that distinguish the ecomuseum model from that of the traditional museum, and that are most beneficial for a museum considering more meaningful and purposeful community interactions. Additionally, these characteristics will be used to show how these urban community museums already embody the ideology and methodology of the ecomuseum. The three characteristics that will be examined as distinguishing components of the ecomuseum modelwill be (1) a community-based and focused structure, (2) the use of art as a social tool, and (3) acting as a change agent for their communities through providing access to education, culture, and power. While they are laid out as three separate components for the sake of easier understanding, it is essential to realize that these characteristics are ultimately intertwined with and related to each other. For the best use or example of this model, these three elements will work together as one through the mission and initiatives of the museum. 

In order to best consider these three components in how they may operate in actual museum policy, exhibitions, and programming, there will be two case studies examined. Both of these examples, the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, embody values and initiatives that relate to those of the ecomuseum. Jane Addams Hull-House, located on the West Side of Chicago, focuses much of its exhibitioning and programming around issues and individuals relating to the West Side.[23] Likewise, the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum acts as a hub for information relating to the history and present-day events of the Anacostia neighborhood in Washington, D.C.[24] Both are exceptional cases of institutions representing and supporting the divested communities in their surrounding neighborhoods. Additionally, both museums have unique historical foundings and traditions that ground them in their service to the community. Though neither museum refers to itself explicitly as an ecomuseum, this study will explore how their policies, exhibitions, and programming embody the methodology of the ecomuseum model. It is hoped that through considering these three components in relationship to actual museums in their practice, there will be a better understanding as to how this model can be used and adapted to better offer opportunities for progressive and meaningful engagement with urban communities that are not currently served by museums.

            Since the very definition of the ecomuseum is so dependent on physical space and community partnership, it is essential that a museum that is to succeed following this model has a dedication in their mission to be community-based and focused on the culture of the community they serve. In the traditional model, the museum has crafted narratives around the historical and social associations between their visitors and their objects through curators who are offering the museum’s perspective. Often, these narratives are presented without considering community importance or relevance, even though the narratives a museum creates tell their visitors a political commentary, not only on their collection, but on the broader status of the world.[25] In the ecomuseum model, these narratives are equally shaped by and for their community, as they are about that very community. This can be accomplished in part through exhibitions and programming, as will be seen later in case studies. The ecomuseum encourages this approach, in part, because its overall goal is to provide resources to contribute to the evolution of an autonomous community and its individualism.[26] In order to achieve this, the focus is usually less on collecting objects to store in a facility, and more on supporting the community’s preservation of cultural objects, sites, and practices where and as they exist. Through this, the ecomuseum fulfills its objective of being community-focused by assisting in increasing the community’s visibility, as well as in supporting the aspects of the community’s culture that are already in place.[27] This is key when it comes to supporting urban minority communities, as they are usually located in areas that are more neglected by city politics, so the ecomuseum acts as a space for the preserving and celebrating of community identity, culture, and spaces.

It is easy to see how both of the case studies fit into the first category through a brief examination of their respective missions and values. The Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, founded as a social settlement in 1889, states on its website that “The Museum and its many vibrant programs make connections between the work of Hull-House residents and important contemporary social issues.”[28] Specifically, the Hull-House is focused on the social and political issues as they relate to its community on the West Side of Chicago. Historically, the West Side of Chicago has been home to various African American and other ethnic communities, and is often an area that is divested in by the City of Chicago.[29] The Hull-House aims to address these issues through their exhibition and program planning, by specifically focusing on providing a platform for their community to learn more about these events. One example of how this is being achieved here is through their Making the West Side: Community Conversations on Neighborhood Change [30] multi-year programming initiatives, in which they aim to to “bring together scholars, activists, neighborhood residents, and other stakeholders to investigate the history of neighborhood change on Chicago’s West Side and connect those histories to contemporary issues and concerns.”[31] This programming is just one example of how the Hull-House is following the methods of the ecomuseum by focusing so extensively on their location and community in the fabric of their missions and values.

In the case of the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, location and surrounding community are of equal importance to the mission and values of the museum in their policies. Anacostia hosts a largely African-American population and is located in the south-eastern area of Washington, D.C. and is separated from the rest of the District by the Anacostia river.[32] Founded in 1967 by S. Dillon Ripley, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution at that time, the Anacostia Community Museum was meant to be an outreach effort to the African-American population.[33] Since then, the Anacostia Community Museum has made it its mission to explore “social issues impacting diverse populations of the DC metropolitan area to promote mutual understanding and strengthen community bonds” with an additional specific Social Impact Statement for the Museum to be “for and by the people. It promotes the coming together of diverse people and perspectives to learn from, empower and uplift one another to create a more tolerant, unified metropolitan community.”[34] From its inception, the Museum has had to struggle with its relationship with the museum professionalism Smithsonian Institution and to the needs and wants of its surrounding community. Ultimately, the Museum has committed itself to working with and for their community, leading many to argue that this is a very close example to that of the ecomuseum model.[35] The Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum’s dedication to focusing on the community in which they are based shows how it is already embodying principles of the ecomuseum.

As the museums considered within this study all use the arts as a part of their platform in some way, it is important to consider the impact the arts can have as a social tool to draw attention to and provide information on a social or political issue related to a community. It is essential to note that this concept is not reserved to only arts-specific museums, but can be applied to a variety of institutions that harness artistic practice as a way of disseminating information especially as it relates to a political or social message. The inclusion of the arts in a museum’s exhibition practices and programming can partner with other methods of learning, such as cultural, natural, and technological studies, to work in tandem to create and share practical knowledge on a topic.[36] In an institutional setting, the social role of the arts can lead to creative renditions or presentations of those other methods of learning to “produce shared meanings, cultural capital reserves, and aestheticized lifestyles that promote social cohesion, economic growth, and political stability.”[37] This is exactly what the ecomuseum model harnesses in its use of the arts in a social role to bring attention to events happening in the community. Usually, exhibitions are used to undertake an examining of the political and economical ramifications of a certain issue, usually related to local or national politics, from the position of the community and how this issue will affect it.[38] In doing so, the ecomuseum model showcases how to use the social role of the arts to directly address events happening within the community it serves, as well as empowering that community by providing a resource in which to learn about and then how to confront these happenings. This is especially important to consider in relation to urban minority communities as these neighborhoods usually have local politics that often do not receive as much mainstream attention, but require and benefit from an organized community response.

The Jane Addams Hull House utilizes their space to create art exhibitions that get outside of the pre-described “box” of what a museum exhibition should be and who it should serve. Their Curatorial Manager, Ross Jordan, says he strives to see the space have “lifting power”, or the ability for his curatorial practice to connect to history and engage with art. He elaborates on how the founders of the Hull House saw art as a tool, as the first urban art gallery in Chicago, and he works to embody this by harnessing the use of art to create documentation and access for the West Side community to address social and historical issues. In order to best communicate with and involve their community, the Hull-House hosts open conversations the community can attend to discuss the exhibition and programming around work. Jordan has found that often it is these intimate and open conversations with the community that can lead to future shows and programming, highlighting the importance and level of community inclusion at the Hull-House. [39]

Two exhibitions that exemplify these values are The Best Side: The Art and Soul of Jackie Hetheringtonand Claiming Space: Creative Grounds and Freedom Summer School. The former is an exhibition of the work of West Side artist and activist Jackie Hetherington, who co-founded an art gallery and community space, Art and Soul, in the 1960s.[40] Jordan says the Museum is not as concerned about what physically is going on the walls. Instead, they’re asking questions such as: Is the artist bringing a unique perspective? Are they concerned with issues in the community? Is the artist engaged in these issues in their work? Do they see art as a key component to address these issues?[41] By showing the artwork of someone from their community, the Hull-House is fulfilling its greater purpose of connecting with, educating, and empowering the community. The second exhibition, Claiming Space, draws attention to a current issue in their community: the closure of public schools on the West Side of Chicago.[42] Jordan feels that these exhibitions are a way to visualize struggles and actively address issues outside civic engagement and political projects.[43] This exhibition also highlights the partnerships that the Museum forms, with community artists and activists, in order to increase their outreach and strengthen their ties to the issues and the community at large, as well as providing a space and platform for these partners. These two exhibitions are examples of how the Hull-House is embodying the methodology of the ecomuseum model by using art as a social tool to draw attention to social issues in their community and also involve said community in the process of creating and showing these exhibitions.

            Following the first two characteristics that help define and differentiate the model of the ecomuseum, the third, to act as a change agent for their communities through providing access to education, culture, and power, seems to naturally round off this list. In some ways, this third characteristic is the cumulation of the other two. The ecomuseum model is meant to act as an intermediary for the community to educate themselves on issues relating to their identity or physical domain, and to then use that information to take action on behalf of themselves. This is a key difference from a traditional museum, as this model is more focused on activating its community through its services, as opposed to solely offering the museum’s perspective and narrative of events. This is done through a focus on programming that will provide information and an opportunity for community members to gain skills that they can use to succeed against obstacles, as opposed to the establishment of an end goal. This is best accomplished when the projects or programming are bespoke to the community to best address the issues it needs support in tackling. As a result, an essential component in the operating of an ecomuseum model is how it uses its resources to educate individuals on how to investigate an issue to best advocate for themselves.[44] This aspect of the ecomuseum model is indispensable, especially in how it relates to the influence of the museum to act as a change agent for the community it serves. The community must always be at the heart of the museum’s considerations when it comes to enacting programming that’s ultimate purpose is to interact with or respond to political and social issues. As with the first two characteristics, acting as a change agent in urban minority communities is essential in its ability to empower its community to share and hold independent knowledge and take autonomous actions in response to issues within their neighborhood.

            The Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum has a multitude of programs and exhibitions that relate to its role and ability to act as a change agent for their communities by providing access to education, culture, and power. This is essential as museums are not meant to just reiterate the standard narrative of history, but they are key for the orienting of events that educate the public, especially in relation to a community’s identity and history.[45] The Museum is known for their exhibitions and programming to focus on difficult, honest narratives as they relate to the black historic narratives and current experiences in urban America, specifically in the District of Columbia.[46] What makes the Museum fulfill the role of a change agent is in part a result of their approach to directly collaborating with their communities on exhibitions and programming. In addition to exhibitions, the Museum’s education department provides, on average, 12-15 programs a month. These can relate to local, cultural events or issues, like urban gardening and poetry slams, as well as to larger national events that reflect the interests and identity of their community, like National Poetry Month, Jazz Appreciation Month, or Kwanzaa.[47] While these events are important to the process of connection education, culture, and power together for their communities, the events that reflect this aspect most strongly are the community forums. At these events, the Museum provides a platform and space for the community to come together to discuss social or political issues, on a local to international level, that affect them directly. It is also essential to note that these forums are created through collaboration with local partnerships, again emphasizing the role that the community places in the actual organization and process of the Museum.[48] By bringing the community into the process, the Museum is embodying the methodology of the ecomuseum model by providing access and resources to education and culture which, in turn, empowers their community to act independently to advocate for themselves.

            There is much to consider within this topic, and it is impossible to address it all within this one study. As such, there are multiple areas for future consideration and study related to the concept of the ecomuseum and urban communities. One would be for future research in how these museums, that are so dedicated to serving specific geographic and demographic communities, will or should adapt to adjusting population demographics with the increasing threat of gentrification within these areas. Another would be examining how successfully or in what ways it could be possible for some methodologies or ideologies of the ecomuseum to be adapted by traditional or non-community-based museums. This thought is particularly interesting after the recent case of the Baltimore Museum of Art announcing it will sell parts of its collection, mostly comprised of famous white, male artists, in order to create more capital for collecting works of art by local artists, particularly women and people of color.[49] There is much to be considered within the possibilities of the ecomuseum model, and this study is just the beginning. 

Both the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum are examples of how the ecomuseum model is utilized to best benefit the underserved minority populations in their urban communities through practices that reflect the essential characteristics of the ecomuseum structure. The ecomuseum model ultimately prioritizes the location and identity of the community it serves in order to provide the best policies, exhibitions, and programming possible for them. The three characteristics, (1) a community-based and focused structure, (2) the use of art as a social tool, and (3) acting as a change agent for their communities through providing access to education, culture, and power, work both individually and as a collective unit in order to reach the most meaningful and purposeful method of community engagement - by and for the community. This model is one that should be considered for urban minority neighborhoods as it is best equipped to providing the necessary support to empower these communities, as governmental politics are divesting in these areas. With these methods already successfully in place at smaller, community-based museums, it is easier to see how this is model can be expanded to other museums of a similar structure or mission, or those who wish to better understand how to best benefit their communities.


Work Cited

[1] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4 ]Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Nancy J. Fuller, "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project," in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (Smithsonian Institution, 1992).

[7] Ibid

[8] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[9] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[10] Timothy W. Luke, "Introduction: Museum Exhibitions as Power Play," in Museum Politics: Power Plays at the Exhibition (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2002).

[11] Stacy Douglas, Curating Community: Museums, Constitutionalism, and the Taming of the Political (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017).

[12] Ibid

[13] Ibid

[14] Nancy J. Fuller, "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project," in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (Smithsonian Institution, 1992).

[15] Ibid

[16] Heritage Saskatchewan and Museums Association of Saskatchewan, Ecomuseum Concept: A Saskatchewan Perspective on "Museums Without Walls" (Regina: Heritage Saskatchewan, 2015).

[17 ]Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[18] Ibid

[19] Ibid

[20] Ibid

[21] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[22] Elena Montanari, "Ecomuseums and Contemporary Multi-cultural Communities: Assessing Problems and Potentialities through the Experience of the Écomusée Du Val De Bièvre, Fresnes, France," Museum & Society: University of Leicester 13, no. 3 (July 2015): , accessed May 5, 2018, https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/museumstudies/museumsociety/documents/volumes/montanari.

[23] Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

[24] Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://anacostia.si.edu/

[25] Stacy Douglas, Curating Community: Museums, Constitutionalism, and the Taming of the Political (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017).

[26] Nancy J. Fuller, "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project," in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (Smithsonian Institution, 1992).

[27 ]Heritage Saskatchewan and Museums Association of Saskatchewan, Ecomuseum Concept: A Saskatchewan Perspective on "Museums Without Walls" (Regina: Heritage Saskatchewan, 2015).

[28] Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

[29] "Race and Ethnicity in Near West Side, Chicago, Illinois (Neighborhood)," Statistical Atlas, April 22, 2015, , accessed May 06, 2018, https://statisticalatlas.com/neighborhood/Illinois/Chicago/Near-West-Side/Race-and-Ethnicity.

[30] For more information: "Making the West Side Events and Programs," Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, https://www.hullhousemuseum.org/making-the-west-side/

[31] Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

[32 ]"Race and Ethnicity in Anacostia, Washington, District of Columbia (Neighborhood)," Statistical Atlas, April 22, 2015, , accessed May 06, 2018, https://statisticalatlas.com/neighborhood/District-of-Columbia/Washington/Anacostia/Race-and-Ethnicity.

[33] Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://anacostia.si.edu/

[34] Ibid

[35] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[36] Timothy W. Luke, "Introduction: Museum Exhibitions as Power Play," in Museum Politics: Power Plays at the Exhibition (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2002).

[37] Ibid

[38] Nancy J. Fuller, "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project," in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (Smithsonian Institution, 1992).

[39] Ross Jordan, interview by author, March 6, 2018.

[40] Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

[41] Ross Jordan, interview by author, March 6, 2018.

[42] Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

[43 ]Ross Jordan, interview by author, March 6, 2018.

[44] Nancy J. Fuller, "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project," in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (Smithsonian Institution, 1992).

[45] Stacy Douglas, Curating Community: Museums, Constitutionalism, and the Taming of the Political (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017).

[46] Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place, 2nd ed. (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011).

[47] Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://anacostia.si.edu/

[48] Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, accessed May 06, 2018, http://anacostia.si.edu/

[49 ]Mary Carole McCauley, "Baltimore Museum of Art to Sell Works by Masters Such as Andy Warhol, Will Aim to Improve Artist Diversity," Baltimoresun.com, April 14, 2018, , accessed May 06, 2018, http://www.baltimoresun.com/entertainment/arts/bs-fe-bma-sells-artworks-20180413-story.html.


Bibliography

Davis, Peter. Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place. 2nd ed. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011. 

Douglas, Stacy. Curating Community: Museums, Constitutionalism, and the Taming of the Political. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017.

Fuller, Nancy J. "The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-Chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project." In Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture, 327-62. Smithsonian Institution, 1992.

Jane Addams Hull-House Museum. Accessed May 06, 2018. http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/.

Jordan, Ross. Interview by author. March 6, 2018.

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Rachel Bartz

Rachel Bartz

Marius Moldvaer

Marius Moldvaer